The 1972 Olympic massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany. Eleven members of the Isreal Olympic team were taken hostage and later killed. A German police officer was also taken hostage. A terrorist organization called "Black September" demanded the release of 234 prisoners held in Israeli jails, and the release of the founders Andreas Baader and Ulrike Mienhof of the German Red Army Faction, who were held in German prisons. Black September called the operation "Iqrit and Biram". They named it after two Palestinian villages whose inhabitants were expelled by the Haganah in 1948.
The attackers were apparently given assistance by German Neo-Nazi groups. Five of the eight members of Black September were killed by police officers during a failed rescue attempt. The three surviving attackers were captured, but later released by West Germany following the hijacking of a Lufthansa Airlines flight. Israel responded to the killers' release with Operation "Spring of Youth" and Operation "Wrath of God, during which the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad and special forces systematically tracked down and killed Palestinians suspected of involvement in the massacre.
The events began when Black September broke into the Olympic village carrying assault rifles and grenades. The Palestinians ran towards No 31 Connollystrasse, the building housing the Israel Olympic team for the Munich Olympic Games. Bursting into the first apartment, they took a group of Israeli officials and trainers hostage: Yossef Gutfreund, Amitzur Shapira, Kehat Shorr, Andrei Spitzer, Jacov Springer and Moshe Weinberg. In another apartment, they captured the Israeli wrestlers and weightlifters Eliezer Halfin, Yossef Romano, Mark Slavin, David Berger and Zeev Friedman. When the Israelis fought back, the Palestinians opened fire. They shot Romano and Weinberg. The other nine were taken hostage and eventually killed during a rescue operation.